The words "statistics" and "data handling" might sound dry but it's an area of maths with an exciting range of skills at its core including investigating, gathering, presenting, and examining information.
Not only is it a practical topic that can be used across the curriculum, unlike other areas of maths, it also has great potential to brighten up your classroom displays.
This week we have a spread of resources about tally tables, bar graphs, pie charts, pictograms to help you teach primary and secondary students, with a range of abailities.
Get started with this fun activity that introduces 7-11 year olds to data handling using species from the African savannah. Created by ARKive, pupils use this fact sheet to identify the data needed to fill in a table and then use this to construct two different bar graphs. Pupils answer questions using the graphs, before writing five questions to help them interpret a third graph. Older pupils could compare the three graphs for height, length and weight of different animals. Can they think of any questions that can only be answered by looking at more than one graph? For example, is the tallest animal also the longest? Is the shortest animal also the lightest?
Great for introductory or revision lessons, these data handling posters explain what pictograms, bar charts, line graphs and pie charts are, with diagrams and interactive questions included. They would also make a fun group activity: give one poster to each group then ask them to teach the rest of the class about it. You can download posters for other maths topics from Teaching Packs, while these display cards by Twinkl feature useful data handling vocabulary.
For more practice collecting, collating and presenting data, try this worksheet by Primary Leap. It asks pupils to total up a tally sheet then turn the information into a bar chart. There are also worksheets about interpreting data in line graphs, pictograms and conversion graphs. The worksheets are useful for reinforcing learning and could be used as homework. They also provide ideas for surveys that your own class might want to conduct. For example, how many different colours of car passed the school in one hour, or what are the most popular sandwich fillings at lunchtime?
For paired work on a computer, try these interactive resources from the Guardian. This one asks pupils to create a bar chart from information contained in a table by dragging the bars to the correct height, while this one asks pupils to solve a variety of problems by interpreting data in line graphs. These activities focus on extracting and interpreting data from tables, specifically working out the range and mode of a set of data.
For secondary pupils, we have a set of resources that focus on collecting data, presenting data and interpreting data. The activities, which could be used with the whole class on an interactive whiteboard or by pupils working in pairs on a computer, start by looking at frequency tables and explain terms such as "grouped data" and "class intervals". Students then examine the construction of pie charts and bar charts, followed by histograms, frequency polygons and cumulative frequency curves. Finally, pupils interpret and discuss charts and graphs that give false impressions, analyse cumulative frequency graphs, interpret data represented on a pie chart, compare data using averages, and analyse scatter graphs.
Secondary pupils might also enjoy this "collective memory" activity based on calculating averages. As maths teacher Mel Muldowney explains: "Students work in groups with the poster on the wall just outside my door. One member at a time from each group is allowed to view the poster for 30 seconds. They have to tell the group what they have seen with a view to replicating the poster. The twist is that the answers [on the poster] are wrong and the students have to correct them on their version of the poster." There's more about calculating the mean, median, mode and range in this interactive data handling task, ideal as a quick-finisher activity.
For topical ways of using data handling with your class, the Guardian's Data Store is a great source of information. It publishes the raw statistics behind the news with the aim of making important data more accessible. You will find a wide range of tables and graphs – such as these about the "poshest" sports or these about the World Cup's top 100 footballers – for your pupils to analyse and explore. Can students find an issue affecting their school or local area that could be turned into a data handling project?
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Этот многомиллиардный шедевр использовал преимущество параллельной обработки данных, а также некоторые секретные достижения в оценке открытого текста для определения возможных ключей и взламывания шифров. Его мощь основывалась не только на умопомрачительном количестве процессоров, но также и на достижениях квантового исчисления - зарождающейся технологии, позволяющей складировать информацию в квантово-механической форме, а не только в виде двоичных данных.
Момент истины настал в одно ненастное октябрьское утро.