As The World Turns Intro Words For Essay

Writing an academic essay means fashioning a coherent set of ideas into an argument. Because essays are essentially linear—they offer one idea at a time—they must present their ideas in the order that makes most sense to a reader. Successfully structuring an essay means attending to a reader's logic.

The focus of such an essay predicts its structure. It dictates the information readers need to know and the order in which they need to receive it. Thus your essay's structure is necessarily unique to the main claim you're making. Although there are guidelines for constructing certain classic essay types (e.g., comparative analysis), there are no set formula.

Answering Questions:  The Parts of an Essay

A typical essay contains many different kinds of information, often located in specialized parts or sections. Even short essays perform several different operations: introducing the argument, analyzing data, raising counterarguments, concluding. Introductions and conclusions have fixed places, but other parts don't. Counterargument, for example, may appear within a paragraph, as a free-standing section, as part of the beginning, or before the ending. Background material (historical context or biographical information, a summary of relevant theory or criticism, the definition of a key term) often appears at the beginning of the essay, between the introduction and the first analytical section, but might also appear near the beginning of the specific section to which it's relevant.

It's helpful to think of the different essay sections as answering a series of questions your reader might ask when encountering your thesis. (Readers should have questions. If they don't, your thesis is most likely simply an observation of fact, not an arguable claim.)

"What?"  The first question to anticipate from a reader is "what": What evidence shows that the phenomenon described by your thesis is true? To answer the question you must examine your evidence, thus demonstrating the truth of your claim. This "what" or "demonstration" section comes early in the essay, often directly after the introduction. Since you're essentially reporting what you've observed, this is the part you might have most to say about when you first start writing. But be forewarned: it shouldn't take up much more than a third (often much less) of your finished essay. If it does, the essay will lack balance and may read as mere summary or description.

"How?"  A reader will also want to know whether the claims of the thesis are true in all cases. The corresponding question is "how": How does the thesis stand up to the challenge of a counterargument? How does the introduction of new material—a new way of looking at the evidence, another set of sources—affect the claims you're making? Typically, an essay will include at least one "how" section. (Call it "complication" since you're responding to a reader's complicating questions.) This section usually comes after the "what," but keep in mind that an essay may complicate its argument several times depending on its length, and that counterargument alone may appear just about anywhere in an essay.

"Why?"  Your reader will also want to know what's at stake in your claim: Why does your interpretation of a phenomenon matter to anyone beside you? This question addresses the larger implications of your thesis. It allows your readers to understand your essay within a larger context. In answering "why", your essay explains its own significance. Although you might gesture at this question in your introduction, the fullest answer to it properly belongs at your essay's end. If you leave it out, your readers will experience your essay as unfinished—or, worse, as pointless or insular.

Mapping an Essay

Structuring your essay according to a reader's logic means examining your thesis and anticipating what a reader needs to know, and in what sequence, in order to grasp and be convinced by your argument as it unfolds. The easiest way to do this is to map the essay's ideas via a written narrative. Such an account will give you a preliminary record of your ideas, and will allow you to remind yourself at every turn of the reader's needs in understanding your idea.

Essay maps ask you to predict where your reader will expect background information, counterargument, close analysis of a primary source, or a turn to secondary source material. Essay maps are not concerned with paragraphs so much as with sections of an essay. They anticipate the major argumentative moves you expect your essay to make. Try making your map like this:

  • State your thesis in a sentence or two, then write another sentence saying why it's important to make that claim. Indicate, in other words, what a reader might learn by exploring the claim with you. Here you're anticipating your answer to the "why" question that you'll eventually flesh out in your conclusion.
  • Begin your next sentence like this: "To be convinced by my claim, the first thing a reader needs to know is . . ." Then say why that's the first thing a reader needs to know, and name one or two items of evidence you think will make the case. This will start you off on answering the "what" question. (Alternately, you may find that the first thing your reader needs to know is some background information.)
  • Begin each of the following sentences like this: "The next thing my reader needs to know is . . ."  Once again, say why, and name some evidence. Continue until you've mapped out your essay. 

Your map should naturally take you through some preliminary answers to the basic questions of what, how, and why. It is not a contract, though—the order in which the ideas appear is not a rigid one. Essay maps are flexible; they evolve with your ideas.

Signs of Trouble

A common structural flaw in college essays is the "walk-through" (also labeled "summary" or "description"). Walk-through essays follow the structure of their sources rather than establishing their own. Such essays generally have a descriptive thesis rather than an argumentative one. Be wary of paragraph openers that lead off with "time" words ("first," "next," "after," "then") or "listing" words ("also," "another," "in addition"). Although they don't always signal trouble, these paragraph openers often indicate that an essay's thesis and structure need work: they suggest that the essay simply reproduces the chronology of the source text (in the case of time words: first this happens, then that, and afterwards another thing . . . ) or simply lists example after example ("In addition, the use of color indicates another way that the painting differentiates between good and evil").

Copyright 2000, Elizabeth Abrams, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

[Hook]
I don't know why this world keeps turning round and round
But I wish it would stop and let me off right now
I don't know why this world keeps turning round and round
But I wish it would stop and let me off right now

[Interlude/Collision]
Yes, man! As the world turns
We all experience things in life
Trials and tribulations that we all must go through
When someone wants to test us
When someone tries our patience

[Verse 1]
I hang with a bunch of hippies and wacky tobacco planters
Who swallow lit roaches and light up like jack-o-lanterns
Outsidaz, baby, and we suin' the courts
‘Cause we dope as fuck and only get a 2 in The Source
They never should've booted me outta reform school
Deformed fool, taking a shit in a warm pool
'Til they threw me out the Ramada Inn
I said it wasn't me, I got a twin
(Oh my God, it's you! Not again!)
It all started when my mother took my bike away
‘Cause I murdered my guinea pig
And stuck him in the microwave
After that, it was straight to the 40 ouncers
Slappin' teachers and jackin' off in front of my counselors
Class clown freshman,dressed like Les Nessman
Fuck the next lesson! I'll pass the test guessin'
And all the other kids said: "Eminem is a thizz head
He'll never last, the only class he'll ever pass is phys-ed."
Maybe true, 'til I told this bitch in gym class
That she was too fat to swim laps, she need a Slim Fast
(Who? Me?) Yeah, bitch, you so big
You walked into Vic Tanny's and stepped on Jenny Craig
She picked me up to snap me like a skinny twig
Put me in a headlock, then I thought of my guinea pig
I felt the evilness and started transformin'
It began stormin', I heard a bunch of cheering fans swarmin'
Grabbed that bitch by her hair, drug her across the ground
And took her up to the highest diving board
And tossed her down
Sorry coach, it's too late to tell me stop
While I drop this bitch face down and watch her belly flop

[Hook]
I don't know why this world keeps turning round and round
But I wish it would stop and let me off right now

[Interlude/Collision]
As the world turns, these are the days of our lives
These are the things that we must go through, day by day

[Verse 2]
We drive around in million dollar sports cars
While little kids hide this tape
From their parents like bad report cards
Outsidaz, and we suin' the courts
‘Cause we dope as fuck and only get a 2 in The Source
Hypochondriac, hanging out at the laundromat
Where all the raunchy, fat, white, trashy blondes be at
Dressed like a sailor, standin' by a pail of garbage
It's almost dark and I'm still tryna nail a trailer park bitch
I met a slut and said: "What up? It's nice to meet ya
I'd like to treat you to a Faygo and a slice of pizza
But I'm broke as fuck
And I don't get paid 'til the first of next month
But if you would care to join me
I was about to roll this next blunt
But I ain't got no weed, no Phillies or no papers
Plus I'm a rapist and a repeated prison escapist
So give me all your money
And don't try nothing funny, ‘cause you know your stinking ass is too fat to try to outrun me."
I went to grab my gun, that's when her ass put it on me
With an uppercut and hit me with a basket of laundry
I fell through the glass doors, started causing a scene
Slid across the floor and flew right into a washing machine
Jumped up with a broken back
Thank God I was smokin' crack
All day, and doped up on coke and smack
All I wanted to do was rape the bitch and snatch her purse
Now I wanna kill her, but yo, I gotta catch her first
Ran through Rally's parking lot and took a shortcut
Saw the house she ran up in and shot her fuckin' porch up
Kicked the door down to murder this divorced slut
Looked around the room
That's when I seen her bedroom door shut
I know you're in there, bitch, I got my gun cocked
You might as well come out now
She said: "Come in! It's unlocked."
I walked in and all I smelled was Liz Claiborne
And seen her spread across the bed naked watchin' gay porn
She said: "Come here, big boy! Let's get acquainted!"
I turned around to run, twisted my ankle and sprained it
She came at me at full speed, nothin' could stop her
I shot her five times and every bullet bounced off her
I started to beg: "No, please let go!"
But she swallowed my fuckin' leg whole like an egg roll
With one leg left, now I'm hoppin' around crippled
I grabbed my pocket knife and sliced off her right nipple
Just tryna buy me some time
Then I remembered this magic trick
Duh-dah-duh-dah-duh-duh, go-go gadget dick!
Whipped that shit out, and ain't no doubt about it
It hit the ground, caused an earthquake and power outage
I shouted: "Now, bitch, let's see who gets the best!"
Stuffed that shit in crooked and fucked that fat slut to death
(Come here, bitch, come here!
Take this mothafuckin' dick, bitch, come here!)

[Hook]
I don't know why this world keeps turning round and round
But I wish it would stop and let me off right now
I don't know why this world keeps turning round and round
But I wish it would stop and let me off right now
I don't know why this world keeps turning round and round
But I wish it would stop and let me off right now

[Interlude/Collision]
And as we go along, throughout the days of our lives
We all face small obstacles and challenges everyday
That we must go through, these are the things
That surround us through our atmosphere, every day
Every single day the world keeps turning

Categories: 1

0 Replies to “As The World Turns Intro Words For Essay”

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *